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Historical and Cultural Heritage № 2(12) 2022

N. V. Pislegin
BEEKEEPING AND ITS ASPECTS ON THE TERRITORY OF THE UDMURT KAMA REGION: SOME DOCUMENTARY EVIDENCE OF THE LATE XVIII – XIX CENTURIES  Download

 The article, based on archival material, provides a picture of the systemic Udmurt forest and “garden” beekeeping, which is largely regulated by the state. Bees, things and bee products were used, guarded, stolen, sold, cared for and reproduced. Peasant self-government and local state bodies, customary and written law came into contact in matters of beekeeping. The use of tamga as the signature of an illiterate peasant was an everyday phenomenon, while it was very often possible to see its original purpose in the name (“bortnoye pyatno”, “bortnaya tamga”). Tamgas were used for signing audit tales, petitions, searches, testimonies. They were even forged. In general, the materials of the Udmurt Kama region of the late XVIII–XIX centuries testify to the historically developed beekeeping, permeating numerous aspects of the peasant economy, its vital activity. Like other aspects of the peasant economy, beekeeping becomes the object of paternalism, carried out at the expense of the peasants themselves. We can rather talk about the simultaneous existence of wild-honey farming and garden (beehive?) beekeeping with the undoubted greater antiquity of the first one.
Keywords: Udmurt Kama region, beekeeping, peasantry, tamgas, written sources.

DOI: 10.15350/26191490.2022.2.19              


M. A. Akhmetova
STATISTICAL REALITY: THE FAMINE OF THE 1920s IN THE TATAR REPUBLIC  Download

The article focuses on the famine of the 1920s in the Tatar Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic through various statistical data posted in the publications of the Tatar Statistical Office, local periodicals and archival documents. The purpose of the research is to show the objective reality of the era under study and the panorama of the spread of the disaster on the territory of the Tatar Republic. Through digital data the author seeks to trace the process of eliminating hunger in the territory of the TASSR. Also, the author tries to summarize existing materials on the topic under study, the analysis of which makes it possible to understand the difficulties of accurately counting the victims of mass famine. In the process of analyzing statistical data, the author shows that during the famine years, the accounting of the hungry people was not seriously organized and the relevant institutions did not develop a unified methodology for counting the victims of hunger, which gave rise to discrepancies in the interpretation of the disaster’s scale. Statistics in the language of numbers testified to the tragedy, called for all efforts to save the population from starvation.
Keywords: famine, the 1920s, statistical data, Tatar Republic, canton of TASSR, Central Statistical Office, accounting of the starving people, population decline.

DOI: 10.15350/26191490.2022.2.20       


A. N. Klyashev
NEW APOSTOLIC CHURCH IN RUSSIA AND BASHKORTOSTAN  Download

The article considers the New Apostolic Church (NAC) which works on the territory of the Republic of Bashkortostan. There is a brief history of the church and the main tenets. The research is based on the author’s field materials and the results of a content analysis of the content of specialized electronic resources. The changes that have taken place in recent decades are analyzed due to the fact that the leadership of the NAC began to position the church as Protestant. They did not separate it out as independent direction, along with Orthodox, Catholic and ancient Eastern ones. The materials of this research may be of interest to ethnologists, students, graduate students, scholars of religious studies and teachers of specialized educational organizations, as well as employees of executive authorities and municipal employees.
Keywords: Protestantism, New Apostolic Church, Republic of Bashkortostan, Russian Federation.   

DOI: 10.15350/26191490.2022.2.21                  


S. M. Emelin
GOLDEN DEER OF EURASIA – A UNIQUE ARCHAEOLOGICAL FIND OF THE XX CENTURY (TO THE 35TH ANNIVERSARY OF THE FILIPPOV MOUNDS’ EXCAVATIONS)  Download

2023 marks the 35th anniversary of the sensational discovery of Ufa archaeologists, who found several thousand gold and silver objects. These things were found as a result of the excavations of mounds which began in 1986, near the village of Filippovka in the Orenburg region, under the embankment of the “Tsar’s Kurgan”. The main value are “golden deer” belonging to the Sarmatian era (VI–IV century BC). The uniqueness and beauty of the artifacts, which are still the subject of historical research, put them on a line with the largest archaeological finds in the world. They continue to excite the minds of scientists and cause new scientific hypotheses and theories. The significance of Sarmatian gold is also great in cultural and educational terms. It has actually become a visiting card of Bashkortostan, an integral part of the richest historical and cultural heritage of our ancestors.
Keywords: Sarmatians, archeology, Sarmatian gold, Filippovka, “golden deer”, A. Kh. Pshenichnyuk, Southern Urals.             

DOI: 10.15350/26191490.2022.2.22         

                

F. G. Galieva
TRADITIONS OF PEOPLES OF THE REPUBLIC OF BASHKORTOSTAN IN THE REGISTER OF OBJECTS OF INTANGIBLE CULTURAL HERITAGE  Download

The article is devoted to the analysis of unique phenomena of the Republic of Bashkortostan’s ethnic cultures which were included to the Register of objects of intangible cultural heritage. The main research methods are description, historical and ethnographic analysis, classification, comparative comparison. The Expert Council consisting of scientists, cultural and educational workers focused on the coverage of many ethnic groups traditionally living in the republic when the Register was compiling. There are such ethnic groups as Bashkirs, Russians, Tatars, Chuvash, Udmurts, Mari, Mordvins, Ukrainians, Belarusians, Latvians, Kryashens, Mishars. The selection to the Register was on the basis of such characteristics as traditional character, uniqueness, preservation ability, “Bashkirness”, which means the existence on the territory of Bashkortostan. The objects describe family and social rituals, religious customs, musical and oral-poetic folklore, national costume, cuisine, crafts and handicrafts, decorative and applied arts, folk sports. There are the main problems related to the fixation, research and preservation of ethnic traditions.
Keywords: Register of objects of intangible heritage, peoples of Bashkortostan, preservation of ethnic traditions, state measures to revive ethnic traditions.

DOI: 10.15350/26191490.2022.2.23                


G. A. Kornishina
MORDVA IN THE STRUCTURE OF THE POPULATION OF THE CHELYABINSK REGION ACCORDING TO CENSUS DATA OF THE XX – EARLY XXI CENTURIES Download

The article examines the history of the formation of the Mordovian population in the Chelyabinsk region, analyzes the nature of its settlement, in particular the types of localities. It is based on statistical and Internet sources, as well as scientific publications. There are the tendencies of changes in the quantitative composition of the Mordovians during the XX – early XXI centuries. Based on the level of consolidation and institutionalization, cultural indicators of a given ethnic group, we determined its status in the general structure of the ethnos. The author shows the role of the Mordovian national cultural centers of the Chelyabinsk region in the preservation and development of ethnic culture in a multicultural space. These centers implement the organizational and coordinating functions of the Mordovian population of the Chelyabinsk region, actively positioning themselves in this region.
Keywords: Mordovian ethnos, Moksha, Erzya, Chelyabinsk region, diaspora, resettlement policy, Mordovian national cultural centers. 

DOI: 10.15350/26191490.2022.2.24                          


N. I. Shutova
TRADITIONAL PRAYINGS AND PAGAN TEMPLES OF THE KIZNER UDMURTS  Download

The article is devoted to the characteristics of traditional religious places and prayings of the Kizner Udmurts (Kiznersky District of the Udmurt Republic) which live at the watershed of the Vyatka River’ and its tributary Kilmez’ basins. The work contains the information on the demographic indicators and the settlement area of this Udmurt group. There is the characteristic of the sanctuaries, family and calendar rites of the following settlements: the villages of Bezmenshur, Udmurt Saramak, Ayshur, Bertlo, Sarkuz, Staryj Argabash, Chushtaskem. The ancient public center of the district were the villages of Udmurt Saramak (Saramak-Pelga), Sarkuz and Staryj Argabash. The large territorial pagan temples were situated in the surrounding of these villages. There were the regular traditional collective prayings where people made a sacrifice of foals and sheep. It was revealed the population of this area was predominantly the Southern Udmurt clan groups of Pelga, Omga, Bodya. Other Udmurt clans as Kaksya, Kopka, Chabya and Lozya also traced into the region. The border between settling territory of two ethno-territorial groups such as the Southern Udmurt and the Kalmez Udmurts runs along the Kizner district.
Keywords: the Kizner Udmurts, Kizner region, ritual, beliefs, pagan temple, clan groups.  

DOI: 10.15350/26191490.2022.2.25               


T. N. Russkih
SPATIAL ASPECTS OF THE MODERN UDMURT ETHNOS’S COMMUNICATION  Download

The article presents the features of the spatial organization of communication, the most and least convenient places for communication and interaction between modern Udmurts on the analysis of field data that have been collected in the ethnographic expedition to Igrinsky, Balezinsky, Debessky, Glazovsky districts of the Udmurt Republic in 2008–2022. The author of the article focuses on the category of privacy which has a main role in communication of the Udmurts. The category of privacy is expressed in a ban on intrusion into the communicative space of an unfamiliar person both physically (the ban on touching) and thematically (the ban on discussing private matters, plans for the future). Modern Udmurts keep a distance in the process of communication. The distance between the interlocutors is variable and varies depending on the gender, age, public and social status of the communicants.
Keywords: the Udmurts, communication, spatial organization of communication, non-verbal communication.

DOI: 10.15350/26191490.2022.2.26              


D. A. Chernienko
THE KAZAKHS OF THE VOLGA-URAL REGION: THE DYNAMICS OF ETHNO-DEMOGRAPHIC AND ETHNO-SOCIAL PROCESSES  Download

The article examines the Kazakh population in the geographical core of the Volga-Ural region as part of the administrative-territorial unit – Volga Federal District. The census data from the end of the XIX century to the beginning of the XXI century analyses demographic changes and the main ethno-social processes. There are three distinguished groups of the Volga Federal District entities by the population size and share of the Kazakhs in the overall ethnic structure. The article presents the features of the Volga-Ural region as a historical and geographical area, the main regularities of the formation of the Kazakh population and the state of regional historiography. Also, there is the dynamics of changes in the population size, gender structure and ratio of rural to urban population. It is concluded that the Kazakhs are an integral part of the complex, mosaic ethno-cultural space of the region and its separate subjects. There are general tendencies of ethno-social development, their local features and determining factors. We identified two intra-regional areas of the Kazakh settlement and emphasized the work conducted by public organizations on preservation and development of national culture.
Keywords: autochthons, diaspora, the Kazakhs, migration, Volga Federal District, regions, Russia, Volga-Ural region, ethnodemography, ethno-social processes.              

DOI: 10.15350/26191490.2022.2.27             


A. A. Turanov
TO THE CREATION TIME AND THE AUTHOR OF THE TRANSLATION INTO THE UDMURT LANGUAGE OF THE PRAYER “OUR FATHER”
FROM THE F. P. ADELUNG’S FOUNDATION  Download

This article is devoted to the study of the Udmurt script monuments of the early XIX century, associated with the names of Johann and Fyodor (Friedrich) Adelung. The article clarifies information about the creation time and authorship of translations into the Udmurt language of the prayer Our Father and the localization of the dialect used in it. The used sources of information are well-known materials published by philologists T. I. Teplyashina and B. I. Karakulov and documental archives that were not previously involved in research. Archival materials allow us to reconstruct the biography of Egor Satrapinsky and establish that the translation was made by him in 1804 or 1805. The translation was made in the dialect of the Udmurts who lived in the vicinity of the village of Tsipya in the Vyatka province (currently in Tatarstan). The use of the historical-critical method in analyzing the totality of all available information allows the author to conclude that the translation made using the German alphabet and published in 1806 in the book of J. Adelung Mithridates, or Universal Linguistics... is a transliteration of the translation made by E. Satrapinsky.
Keywords: monument of writing, text, the Udmurt language, translation, prayer “Our Father”, translator, Egor Satrapinsky, F. P. Adelung’s Foundation.

DOI: 10.15350/26191490.2022.2.28        


L. Ye. Kirillova
UDMURT TOPONYMS REFLECTING THE SEASONAL PREVALENCE OF THE USE OF GEOGRAPHICAL OBJECTS Download

The article deals with toponyms and microtoponyms, which reflected the seasonal prevalence of human use of certain geographical objects and climatic conditions of the region. The terrain features have a strong influence on the climate of Udmurtia. These toponyms indicate that geographical objects, due to the nature of the area, could be used mainly only at seasons of the year: in winter and summer. The attributive component of such names are words with the semantics of ‘winter’ and ‘summer’. In the Udmurt language it is expressed by the words tol ‘winter, wintry’, tolalte ‘in the winter time, wintry’ and guzhem ‘summer, summery’. The analysis of toponyms shows that there are much more “winter” names than “summer” ones. Transitional seasons in the toponymy of the Udmurt and other languages ​​are represented by single names, one of the components of which are words with the meaning of ʻautumn, autumnalʼ and ʻspring, vernalʼ. The microtoponyms reflected certain difficulties of the population in the past in environmental conditions and adaptation to the natural conditions of life.
Keywords: the Udmurt language, toponymy, climate, seasons, adaptation to natural conditions.  

DOI: 10.15350/26191490.2022.2.29       


I. V. Pchelovodova, N. V. Anisimov
SONG FOLKLORE OF ZAKAMSKY UDMURTS IN THE CONTEXT OF SPRING RITUAL BYDGYNNAL (THE GREAT DAY)  Download

The article is devoted to the analysis of the Zakamsky Udmurts’ tunes within the spring ritual Bydgynnal (The Great Day). The relevance of the research lies in the insufficiently studied musical folklore of this ethnographic group. The research is based on the field materials recorded during 2016–2022, materials of the Scientific Archive of the Udmurt Institute of History, Language and Literature, expeditionary materials of the Udmurt ethnographer R. R. Sadikov. The study methodology relies on philological and musicological approaches, which provide a plot-thematic analysis of a poetic text, the identification of modal, rhythmic and melodic features of the tunes’ development. The results of the analysis show the heterogeneity of the melodies. The angematic scales reveal the proximity of the calendar melodies of the Zakamsky Udmurts to musical traditions of southern and the Zavyatsky Udmurts. There are two types of rhythmic structures. The melizmatics of melody is associated with the influence of Turkic culture.
Keywords: Zakamsky Udmurts, song folklore, spring rituals, ritual songs.              

DOI: 10.15350/26191490.2022.2.30  


A. V. Kamitova
“IF YOU WANT TO KNOW WHAT TOMORROW HAS IN STORE FOR YOU, DO NOT FORGET WHAT YESTERDAY HAD”: THE ROLE OF KUZEBAY GERD IN THE PRESERVATION AND POPULARIZATION OF UDMURT FOLKLORE  Download

The article focuses on the study of the scientific activity of the Udmurt scientist, writer, educator Kuzebay Gerd, recognizing his role in the preservation and popularization of the Udmurt folklore in the first half of the XX century. There is a brief review of scientific expeditions, in which he participated together with his Udmurt colleagues, famous “metropolitan” scholars and socio-political figures of Udmurtia. Materials related to the collecting activities of Kuzebay Gerd are entered into scientific circulation. The author describes his expedition routes, plans and the methods used in the course of field research. It is revealed that the practical work of Kuzebay Gerd in collecting folklore and ethnographic materials was closely connected with the popularizing, explanatory and educational work promoted through the media. Readers got acquainted with samples of field materials, collected during the expeditions, from his published letters and articles in newspapers and magazines.
Keywords: Udmurt folklore, Kuzebay Gerd, expedition, field work, folklore and ethnographic material.          

DOI: 10.15350/26191490.2022.2.31            


V. L. Shibanov
GENRE SPECITICITY OF MIKHAIL PETROV’S NOVEL “OLD MULTAN”  Download

The article is devoted to the analysis of genre specificity of Mikhail Petrov’s novel Old Multan (1954). The purpose of the research: to reveal and describe the synthesis of various genre formations which determines the originality of the novel. The main research method is the genre analysis of the text. Genrology is understood as a complex system of means and ways of recreating reality. M. Petrov relied on real historical events of the 1880–1890s, used archival documents, but in terms of genre, the work goes far beyond the scope of a historical novel. The depiction of the peasants’ hard life under autocratic oppression actualizes the signs of a social novel. The detective plot occupies a large place in the text: the murder of a beggar, the search for criminals, the investigation and three trials. Mikhail Petrov in Old Multan also anticipates the Udmurt psychological novel, shows the heavy fate of some controversial heroes – the Udmurt merchant Bugrash, the young Russian peasant woman Dasha Grishina. Old Multan is also a warning novel, calling for extreme caution in matters of interethnic relations and conflicts. The use of various genres by M. Petrov contributes to a special aesthetic modeling of reality, the study of which allows a new interpretation of this novel.
Keywords: Udmurt literature, Mikhail Petrov, novel Old Multan, historical novel, detective story, warning novel.            

DOI: 10.15350/26191490.2022.2.32        


О. S. Ziyavadinova
THE PARADIGM “NATURE – MAN – PATRIMONIAL HOUSE” OF KOMI POETS’ ART CONSCIOUSNESS OF THE SECOND HALF OF THE XX CENTURY  Download

The article analyses the features of an embodiment of figurative semantic and thematic paradigm “Nature – Man – Patrimonial house” of Komi poets’ art consciousness of the second half of the XX century. It is revealed that in art practice of A. E. Vaneev, V. V. Timin, S. A. Popov, G. A. Yushkov this semantic complex is key. On the example of their works we identify the ways of embodiment of nature motives and images that form a philosophical picture of the world, the specifics of national consciousness, the world outlook of the ethnic group, psychology, aesthetic ideas, spiritual life, culture, traditions, the experience of patriarchal life. Texts from fictional works provide an opportunity to demonstrate the personality in multifaceted correlation with the environment. Research on the theme of nature-human relations helps not only to describe the outlook of the studied Komi authors, but also to present a picture of the ideological and aesthetic development of Komi poetry in the second half of the XX century, to comprehend the general trends in the evolution of literary art in the Komi Republic as a whole.
Keywords: Komi poetry, nature, man, culture, traditions.               

DOI: 10.15350/26191490.2022.2.33            


A. T. Akhatov
FROM THE HISTORY OF THE ALL-RUSSIAN SCIENTIFIC AND PRACTICAL CONFERENCE OF YOUNG SCIENTISTS “ETHNOSES AND CULTURES OF THE URAL-VOLGA REGION: HISTORY AND MODERNITY” (2006–2021)  Download

The article deals with the history of the development of the All-Russian scientific and practical conference of young scientists “Ethnoses and cultures of the Ural-Volga region: history and modernity” since 2006, when it was first held within the walls of the Institute of Ethnological Studies of R. G. Kuzeev of the Ufa Scientific Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, and up to the fifteenth conference held in extra-mural form in 2021. There is a brief overview of the scientific forums with the features of some of them, the data on the number of participants and presentations in different years. The article characterizes the main directions and results of the conference, which has become a traditional meeting place for young researchers from different cities and regions of Russia and some neighboring countries to discuss topical issues of archeology, ethnography, religious studies, history, intercultural interaction and the preservation of ethnocultural traditions in the Ural-Volga region. Also, the author shows the role of the Council of Young Scientists of the Institute of Ethnological Studies of R. G. Kuzeev in organizing and holding the All-Russian conference of young scientists “Ethnoses and cultures of the Ural-Volga region: history and modernity”.
Keywords: youth conference, “Ethnoses and cultures of the Ural-Volga region: history and modernity”, Council of Young Scientists, history, archeology, ethnography.    

DOI: 10.15350/26191490.2022.2.34              


E. V. Popova
THE IV INTERNATIONAL FIELD ETHNOGRAPHIC SYMPOSIUM “MUSH GUR: BEE AND HONEY IN THE CULTURE OF THE PEOPLES
IN THE URAL-VOLGA REGION”  Download

The IV International Field Ethnographic Symposium “Mush Gur: bee and honey in the culture of the peoples in the Ural-Volga region” was held in Izhevsk on September 16–17, 2022. It was devoted to the beekeeping in traditional and modern culture, in language, folklore, museum projects and contemporary festivals. The symposium was attended by specialists from various scientific disciplines and museum staff. The reports presented the beekeeping traditions of different peoples and regions of the Ural-Volga region, Russia, Western and Eastern Europe, Central Asia. The scholars focused on field ethnographic research, interdisciplinary approaches and museum practices, as well as events related to the popularization of this activity. The overview of the symposium contains information about the topics of discussions and presentations.
Keywords: history of beekeeping, honey, bee, honey festivals, beekeeping vocabulary.              

DOI: 10.15350/26191490.2022.2.35