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Historical and Cultural Heritage № 2(11) 2021

K. Ye. Baldin
MEMOIRS OF VYATKA PRIEST ALEXANDER TRAPITSYN ON THE PILGRIMAGE TO PALESTINE IN 1894  Download
The article is devoted to the memoirs of a priest from Vyatka Alexander Trapitsyn who visited Palestine. These memoirs in general have not yet been used by researchers of the history of Russian pilgrimage. The source for this article was the text of memoirs by A. I. Trapitsyn, printed in the «Vyatka Diocesan Gazette». Historical-system and historical-comparative methods, as well as the principles of objectivity, historicism and causality of events were used as research tools. In the text A. I. Trapitsyn not only describes the sacred sights of the Holy Land, but gives them his assessment. The author compares the practices of the Russian and Greek churches, Catholic structures in Palestine. In memoirs for the Greek Church the sociological category of «other» is non-verbally applied, and for Catholics and Muslims in most cases – a completely different category of «alien». The first of them arouses interest in some cases – the sympathy of the author and rejection. Like most Russian memoirists A. I. Trapitsyn speaks with great warmth about the activities of the Imperial Orthodox Palestinian Society in the Holy Land.
Keywords: history of Russian Orthodox Church, orthodox pilgrimage, pilgrim memories, Palestine, Orthodox clergy, Greek Orthodox churches in the Middle East.

DOI: 10.15350/26191490.2021.2.20


O. N. Senyutkina
V. G. KOROLENKO AND THE MULTAN CASE  Download
The author reviews the Multan case of the 1890s, which was a high-profile case in Russia and abroad. The aspect of consideration of this issue is the personality of V. G. Korolenko, who not only attended the hearings, but also defended a group of Votyak peasants accused of committing ritual murder in order to bring a human sacrifice to the pagan gods. The case was complicated by the fact that it was not just a condemnation of some persons during the trial, it was a blow to the ethnos – the Votyaks (the former name of the Udmurts). Examining the situation, the author draws attention to the position of the Russian intelligentsia of that time: some ethnographers spoke about the vitality of the Votyak tradition of nearly cannibalism, others (V. G. Korolenko and his supporters) spoke about the impossibility and inadmissibility of such a phenomenon in the civilized Russian society of the late XIX century. The irreconcilable position of a genuine Russian intellectual, his courage and determination, as well as the ultimately balanced position of the state, led to the acquittal of the accused people. Justice triumphed both in relation to the Votyaks who were initially assigned to hard labor and in relation to the entire ethnos as a whole. The authorities have shown themselves capable of dealing with the arising ethno-confessional conflicts and making the right decisions.
Keywords: Votyaks (Udmurts), paganism, Orthodoxy, Multan case, V. G. Korolenko, state.

DOI: 10.15350/26191490.2021.2.21


N. V. Pislegin
THE SETTLEMENT OF THE RUSSIAN PEASANTRY ON THE TERRITORY OF THE MODERN KIZNER DISTRICT IN THE XVII – FIRST HALF OF THE XIX CENTURIES  Download
The article based on mass written source material – information from household censuses and audit tales – examines the settlement of the Russian peasantry, the formation of its settlement network on the territory of the modern Kizner district of Udmurtia in the era of late feudalism, from the moment of the first written fixation of the process until the middle of the XIX century. Some of the Russian villages under consideration have existed here since at least the first half of the XVII century, but most of them were founded at the end of the XVIII – first half of the XIX centuries. At the time under consideration, three relatively compact arrays of settlements (southern, central and northern) were formed. In addition, polyethnicity began to form in some villages. A fairly significant part of the Russian villages and pochinki were formed in the places of the original residence of the Udmurts and Kryashens, and they, as a rule, settled nearby. In the researcher’s opinion, later, in the post-reform period, first of all, economic and demographic reasons initiated the Multan case in the zone of the relatively recent and most massive migration process.         
Keywords: Kizner district, Russians, peasantry, resettlements, written sources.

DOI: 10.15350/26191490.2021.2.22


А. M. Subbotina
S. F. GIRBASOV’S CHARITABLE CONTRIBUTION TO THE FORMATION OF A DECENTRALIZED SYSTEM OF PSYCHIATRIC CARE FOR THE POPULATION OF VYATKA PROVINCE IN THE LATE XIX – THE BEGINNING OF THE XX CENTURY  Download
The article is devoted to the little-studied aspect of the opening of a hospital for the mentally ill in Yelabuga in 1891. This fact was the beginning of the formation of a decentralized system of psychiatric care in the Vyatka province. Based on the study of periodicals, land records management, documents of the Vyatka Provincial Land Board of the Kirov region’s Central State Archive, it is shown how the charitable initiative of the merchant’s son S. F. Girbasov contributed to a change in the approach to providing medical services to the mentally ill, the development of a network of special medical institutions. The author concludes that the success factors were the transformation of psychiatry into a specialized area of the land health care system, the interest of the Vyatka governor in the availability of psychiatric care to the population, the charitable activity of local merchants in the social sphere. The article examines the conditions of detention and the situation of the mentally ill on the example of the Yelabuga hospital. The author speaks about the desire of the country council to provide the necessary level of improvement of the hospital building and its surrounding territory, the orientation of land doctors to introduce modern methods of treatment, the preservation of entrepreneurs’ interest in providing charitable assistance to psychiatric patients.
Keywords: charity, Girbasovs, merchants, psychiatric hospitals, land medicine, Vyatka province, Yelabuga.

DOI: 10.15350/26191490.2021.2.23


D. A. Chernienko
ETHNIC AND CULTURAL ASSOCIATIONS OF UDMURTIA ON THE INTERNET: EXPERIENCE OF SOCIAL REPRESENTATION OF ETHNICITY  Download
The article provides an overview of information resources on the Internet – websites and social networks, available to the ethnic and cultural associations (ECA) of Udmurtia. It is noted that in the regional historiography, the network activity of public organizations of ethnic and cultural orientation has not yet become an object of special research. The content, implemented tools and functions of such resources and the general nature of social communication of ECA are being interested. There were the methods of systematization, classification and content analysis. As a result, it was revealed that the informational activity of ECA is presented unevenly and insufficiently; the Udmurts and some other ethnic communities demonstrate the greatest activity; the most systematic and diverse work in the media sphere is carried out by youth organizations. The existence of Internet resources itself is not an indicator of the effectiveness of social representation of ECA, since the quality of the resources is generally low and uninformative. Among the social networks the most popular is VKontakte, while the other ones (Instagram, Facebook, Odnoklassniki) are used to a significantly lesser extent, which corresponds to the rating of the popularity of these social networks among Russian Internet users. 
Keywords: Internet, informative resources, ethnic and cultural associations, national Internet, website, social representation, social network, Udmurt Republic, ethnicity.

 DOI: 10.15350/26191490.2021.2.24


A. I. Tuzbekov, I. G. Petrov
ONLINE COMMUNITIES OF THE CHUVASHS OF BASHKORTOSTAN IN THE VIRTUAL SPACE:  EXPERIENCE IN STATISTICAL ANALYSIS  Download
The article is devoted to the study of two virtual Chuvash communities in the social network “VKontakte”: “Chuvashs of Bashkortostan” and “Bashkir Chuvashs and Chuvash girls”. They are designated as “Group № 1” and “Group №2” for convenience. The choice of communities is due to the relatively large number of subscribers, as well as the fact that they show a tendency to increase the number of their audiences. These associations were studied by the authors using the methods of statistical and content analysis. In addition, popular applications are used – vk.barkov.net and popsters.ru. As a result of the conducted research, the main audience of communities, gender and age characteristics, country and place of residence (city or village), education, the number and type of published content, audience activity and the involvement of subscribers in the discussion of topics to be discussed were determined. It is revealed that the communicative segment of these virtual communities is mainly based on ethnic issues, which is evidence of the actualization of their users’ ethnic identity. The subscribers of the groups are mainly men and women between the ages of 18 and 39 who live in cities. Virtual communities are also characterized by the fact that they have very few original publications, since most of them are reproductions of previously published posts taken from other online communities. The expansion of the audience of these associations, as well as their popularity among subscribers, is possible only with a significant expansion of the proposed content, for example, informational, entertainment, educational, advertising and other materials.
Keywords: cyberethnicity, web-ethnography, ethnic identity, Internet communities, Republic of Bashkortostan, Chuvashs, statistical analysis.

DOI: 10.15350/26191490.2021.2.25


B. B. Kardanova
CALENDAR, AGRICULTURAL AND STOCK-RAISING HOLIDAYS AND RITUALS OF THE NOGAIS  Download
The article considers calendar, agricultural and stock-raising holidays and rituals of the Nogais. The relevance of the research is due to the lack of knowledge of individual calendar layers and regions of people’s residence. The purpose of this article is to highlight the folk ritual and festive calendar of the Nogais in the local-regional aspect. The methods of theoretical and empirical research were used in the article. Materials of long-term field expeditions collected in places of compact residence of the people are involved. The author concluded that the calendar rituals and holidays of the people were not only entertaining, but also ceremonial and ritual in nature. They combined remnants of pagan beliefs with elements of the later Muslim religion. The comparison of calendar and ritual holidays of different Nogai subgroups reveals their semantic community, the presence of many similar features and elements, which is explained by their ethnogenetic community. Some local differences are caused by territorial disunity, climatic and geographical differences, as well as inevitable contacts with neighboring peoples.
Keywords: Nogais, calendar, agricultural, stock-raising rituals, holidays.

DOI: 10.15350/26191490.2021.2.26

 

L. M. Ivshin, M. P. Bezenova
To the Question of Lexical and Semantic Changes in the Udmurt Language (Based on Written Monuments of the XVIII century)  Download
The article describes the semantic changes of separate words in the Udmurt written monuments of the last quarter of the XVIII century. The relevance of the research topic is due to the necessity to study transformations of a semantic nature, which were noticed by the authors in the process of acquaintance with the written monuments of the Udmurt language. Homonymy and polysemy are more or less represented in the materials of the analyzed sources; antonymic pairs and synonymous series are highlighted. There are such dictionary entries the meaning of the Udmurt word in which is interpreted differently. The result of semantic modifications is mainly the expansion of the basic meaning of the word as well as the narrowing, but to a lesser extent. Semantic transformations, originating from the written monuments of the early period, were one of the main ways of development and formation of the Udmurt lexical-semantic system in the first half of the XIX century in translating voluminous evangelical texts.
Keywords: the Udmurt language, written monument, lexicology, handwritten dictionary, word semantics, expansion of word meaning.

DOI: 10.15350/26191490.2021.2.27


А. V. Kamitova
HAGIOGRAPHIC LITERATURE IN THE UDMURT LANGUAGE: SEARCH, DESCRIPTION, RESEARCH PROSPECTS Download
This article is devoted to the study of one of the least studied layers of Udmurt literature – hagiographic literature. The object of research is the corpus of texts of this genre in the Udmurt language, translated in the late XIX – early XX centuries. The problem of identifying hagiographies and studying them is identified, which is associated with the specifics of existence, the general historical, cultural and political situation. Problem issues: the lack of complete bibliographic descriptions of books, their number, information about the biographies of the main translators and creators of literature, the preservation of publications in single samples and incomplete entry of texts into scientific circulation. It is revealed that the editions of hagiographic texts in the Udmurt language of this period are characterized by small formats and sizes due to the fact that they were adapted to new readers. The location of the hagiographies in the late XIX – early XX centuries in the zone of special “translation attention” is explained by the requirements put forward to the translators by the leaders of missionary policy and with the interest of the educational programs’ founders themselves in the texts. On the example of separate hagiographic works, their description and partial characteristics are given, possible research prospects are proposed.
Keywords: Udmurt literature, hagiographies in the Udmurt language, national enlightenment, translation, literary monument.

DOI: 10.15350/26191490.2021.2.28


T. R. Dushenkova
Culturological Aspect of “berry” Metaphors and Comparisons in the Udmurt Language  Download
The article considers metaphors and comparisons in the Udmurt language, the component of which is the name of one or another berry. The sources of the material under study were phraseological, lexical dictionaries, as well as some folklore and fictional texts. Linguculturological method is the main method, but elements of semantic, etymological and comparable analysis are used. As a result of the research, it was revealed that comparisons and metaphors used in the Udmurt language include such components as uzy, bory ‘strawberry’, emez’ ‘raspberry’, namer ‘stone berry’ and suter ‘(black) currant’. There are proverbs, sayings, riddles, signs with these components are widespread in the Udmurt language. Some prayers also contain comparisons with berries. “Berry” metaphors and comparisons are often used in describing the maiden and female beauty, they are the ideal of youth. Lips, cheeks, eyes are compared with the ripeness of different berries, their extraordinary sweetness. The lexemes became word-formative components. Berries also appear in the names of fictional texts. The conceptualization of these components, their ingestion of cultural meanings and symbols occurs.
Keywords: metaphor, comparison, ethnolinguistic analysis, the Udmurt language.

DOI: 10.15350/26191490.2021.2.29


S. T. Arekeeva, V. L. Shibanov
THE SPECIFICS OF PSYCHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS IN THE TRILOGY «LOZINSKOE FIELD» BY GRIGORY MEDVEDEV  Download
The article considers the means and techniques of depicting characters’ psychology in the novel-trilogy “Lozinskoe field” written by the Udmurt writer Grigory Medvedev (1904–1938). The article continues the work begun by P. Pozdeev and F. Ermakov. The concept of the “dialectics of the soul” comes to the fore. This work is an important stage in the evolution of the inner world of a person. G. Medvedev is on a par with Kedra Mitrey and Gennady Krasilnikov in terms of psychological analysis. The novel is devoted to collectivization, the opposition of the old and new worlds, the struggle of the supporters of the collective farm and their enemies. But the deep image of the inner world of the characters within the framework of socialist realism speaks of the talent of G. Medvedev, who masterfully draws the nuances of the experiences, the movement of the characters’ souls. For instance, Yakov Butarov is jealous of his wife and directs his anger at the child. The anger evokes hatred, the desire to kill, then the anger turns into shame, remorse and emotion. The character thinks about one thing, but unexpectedly for himself talks about something else. G. Medvedev learns the skill of psychological analysis from Russian writers, primarily from L. Tolstoy’s “dialectics of the soul”.
Keywords: Udmurt literature, Grigory Medvedev, novel-trilogy “Lozinskoe field”, psychological analysis, socialist realism, “dialectics of the soul”.

DOI: 10.15350/26191490.2021.2.30


S. D. Smirnova
The Encyclopedic Direction of the Udmurt Institute of History, Language and Literature of the UdmFRC of the UB RAS in the Context of the Development of Regional Encyclopedistics in Russia  Download
The article is devoted to branch encyclopedistics, the history of the creation of encyclopedic publications in the Udmurt Institute of History, Language and Literature UdmFRC UB RAS. Particular attention is paid to the problems of forming an encyclopedic direction in a scientific institution, in the absence of a coordination center, methods, educational system, as well as achievements and prospects for the development of this direction. The article analyzes the published encyclopedic publications of the Udmurt Institute of History, Language and Literature, examines the issues of cooperation of the Institute’s specialists with the relevant institutions of the country, the problems identified in its course and characteristic of Russian encyclopedistics in general, possible ways to overcome. It is said, in particular, about the creation of a federal vertical to ensure the participation of regional encyclopedias in the content of the National Encyclopedic Portal and the coordination of the activities of regional encyclopedistics at the state level.
Keywords: regional encyclopedistics, branch encyclopedia, concept, vocabulary, scientific and practical conferences, cooperation, portal.

DOI: 10.15350/26191490.2021.2.31


O. V. Perevozchikova
Traditional Song Culture of the Kukmor Udmurts of the Republic of Tatarstan: the Practice of Existence in Modern Conditions  Download
Based on the analysis of field materials, the article examines ritual song folklore and late song genres preserved by the Udmurts of the Kukmorsky district of the Republic of Tatarstan. There are elements of two main song layers in the region: ritual calendar and family-generical songs, as well as songs of late origin and borrowed from the Tatars. In the tradition of Zavyat Udmurts (in this case, the Kukmor ones), the tunes of almost all ritual genres are multifunctional, but the exceptions are the tunes of Akashka rite and recruiting rites. Easy permeability of genre boundaries, functional recoding of ritual tunes is for the entire Udmurt song system. It was revealed that in the musical culture of the Kukmor Udmurts the ritual song layer is preserved only in the memory of old-timers. The song tradition is performed only by folklore ensembles (adult and childish); it is no longer used in a ritual context. The instrumental tradition has also practically disappeared. Thanks to local enthusiasts and keepers of folklore traditions represented by the leaders of ensembles and their members, their propaganda and love for their people, folk art, the local traditional song culture is preserved and transmitted.
Keywords: musical and song tradition, Kukmor district, Tatarstan, Zavyat Udmurts, folklore, field materials.

DOI: 10.15350/26191490.2021.2.32


S. Ya. Zdanovich
THIS ARTICLE IS DEVOTED TO RIMMA DMITRIEVNA GOLDINA, OUR GRADUATION AND SOME TRADITIONS OF V. F. GENING’S ARCHAEOLOGICAL SCHOOL  Download
The article, based on the author’s personal impressions, analyses the training experience of specialists in archaeology at the Faculty of History of the Ural State University in the period from 1961 to 1966 under the guidance of V. F. Gening, the founder of the Ural archaeological expedition. The article describes the scientific and daily life of the students of that time, the role of V. F. Gening in the preparation of future students of archaeology. Information about the graduates and their contribution to the development of archaeological science is described. The role of the personality of Rimma Dmitrievna Goldina is noted; her professional development is analyzed in a wide chronological range from student times to the Head of the scientific school. There are the circumstances of acquiring her rich experience in field research. The difficult path from a teacher to the director of the institute, the founder of her first archaeological school in Izhevsk is reviewed. It is concluded that the personality of the Teacher has a decisive importance for the formation of life values and professional competencies of students who follow the scientific traditions.
Keywords: V. F. Gening, R. D. Goldina, archaeological specialization, settlement, burial ground, scientific school, university.

DOI: 10.15350/26191490.2021.2.33


B. B. Ovchinnikova
Thinking back the 60s – studentship, archaeological years…  Download
Based on the personal memoirs of the author, a graduate of the Historical Faculty of the Ural State University, the article reconstructs the stage of formation of the scientific archaeological school named after V. F. Gening. The author paid special attention to the description of the methodology of specialists’ professional training: attracting students specializing in archaeology to the research work, scientific cooperation of the teacher (V. F. Gening) and students (students of archaeology). The role of personal qualities and pedagogical methods of V. F. Gening’s (Associate Professor of the USU) work in mastering the future profession of archaeologist by students is indicated; it allowed graduates to create their own centers of archaeological research on the territory of the subjects of the USSR. From the point of view of oral history’s concept previously unpublished memoirs into scientific circulation are introduced; they illustrate the historical conditions of formation of students from the 60s as scientists and professionals in archaeology and other related disciplines.
Keywords: studentship, archaeology, the Ural expedition, V. F. Gening, R. D. Goldina, scientific school, oral history.

DOI: 10.15350/26191490.2021.2.34

 

V. D. Kamynin, Yu. P. Chemyakin
When We Were Young…  Download
The article is devoted to the formation and development of the scientific archaeological school of R. D. Goldina through the prism of the historical and anthropological approach. On the basis of personal memoirs of the Historical Faculty’s graduates of the Ural State University named after A. M. Gorky (Sverdlovsk) in 1972 the path of scientific formation of archaeologists A. V. Prokopov, V. A. Kananin, R. D. Goldina is considered. The authors use the basic methods of a new direction for Russian science – oral history. Through self-interviewing and conversation with spectators, an unpublished source of oral history is introduced into scientific circulation. The authors note the role of personal qualities of character in the process of scientific search of scientists-archaeologists of the Ural region. The description of memorable moments of student time and meetings after graduation is given. The provisions of the article are illustrated with photographs from the personal archive.
Keywords: oral history, memories, classmates, A. V. Prokopov, V. A. Kananin, R. D. Goldina, archaeology, scientific school.

DOI: 10.15350/26191490.2021.2.35


V. K. Abramov
«THE FINNO-UGRIC WORLD» IN A SEPARATE REPUBLIC. Download
REVIEW: FINNO-UGRIC WORLD: EXPERIENCE OF SYSTEM ANALYSIS / V. M. ARSENTYEV, N. M. ARSENTYEV / EDITED BY CORRESPONDING MEMBER OF THE RAS N. M. ARSENTYEV. SARANSK: PUBLISHING CENTRE InStItut, 2020. 424 P.: ILL.

DOI: 10.15350/26191490.2021.2.36


M. V. Sukhova
REVIEW: VOLKOVA L. A. «ACCEPT THE ASSURANCE OF SINCERE DEVOTION»:
THE EPISTOLARY LEGACY OF NIKOLAI GRIGORYEVICH PERVUKHIN. IZHEVSK-GLAZOV, 2021. 204 P. Download

DOI: 10.15350/26191490.2021.2.37