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Historical and Cultural Heritage № 1(13) 2023

T. I. Ostanina
Excavations of 1983 near the Alexander Nevsky Cathedral in Izhevsk  Download

The article is based on material obtained from excavations of a cemetery near the Alexander Nevsky Cathedral in Izhevsk. The temple was built according to the project of the renowned Russian architect A. D. Zakharov by his disciple and the first architect of Izhevsk S. E. Dudin. The temple was consecrated on October 15, 1823. Its 200th anniversary will be celebrated in 2023. In 1983, during the earthworks for the installation of a heating pipeline in the eastern part of the cathedral's adjacent territory, two burial vaults were discovered. One of the crypts (destroyed by an excavator and workers in search of gold items), judging by the burial inventory, belonged to a major-general P. E. Gren, the commander of the Izhevsk arms and ironworks, who died in 1859. Another vault was located in a trench 4 metres away from crypt No 1, where a priest was buried. The article gives a detailed description of the clothing material and the funeral rite. It determines the peculiarities of the Orthodox burial customs of the second half of the XIX century for clergy and affluent (noble) residents of the settlement of Izhevsk Factory in the Vyatka Governorate. It should be noted, that the cemetery near the Alexander Nevsky Cathedral was the first archaeological site of the XIX century in Izhevsk to be discovered and partially studied.
Keywords: archaeology, Izhevsk, the Alexander Nevsky Cathedral, cemetery of the XIX century, archaeological excavations, burials, crypts, Orthodox ritual.

DOI: 10.15350/26191490.2023.1.1     


А. G. Kolonskikh
The settlement of Bolshie Shady   Download

The article is dedicated to the problem of localization and identification of historical and cultural heritage objects. The first mention of ancient monuments in the territory of the Ural-Volga region and the Republic of Bashkortostan dates back over two centuries. At the same time, systematic archaeological research of the region began in the middle of the XX century. As a result, a situation arises where the information provided by the first explorers and local historians does not fully coincide with the modern data on ancient settlements and burial grounds. Consequently, certain monuments either remain undiscovered or are recorded several times and accepted in such form by the state authorities. An example of this is the “Bolshie Shady ramparts”, described in the XIX century, but not identified during the research conducted in the XX and XXI centuries. The use of remote methods, large-scale maps and the use of geographic information systems, in combination with classical field archaeological methods, allowed for the discovery and precise localization of archaeological heritage sites.
Keywords: settlement, Bakhmutin culture, geographic information systems, spatial archaeology, localization, ramparts.

DOI: 10.15350/26191490.2023.1.2    


M. V. Nedorezov
Local self-government and the development of medicine in a district town in the latter quarter of XIX century: the case of Chistopol   Download

The article examines the impact of establishing urban public administration according to the City Charter of 1870 on the healthcare system of Chistopol, a district town in the Kazan Governorate. Investigating this issue helps to understand the extent to which self-governing institutions influenced the development of sectors such as medicine and sanitation. Based on reports from the city administration and budgets of the city council, the article utilizes historical-genetic and historical-comparative methods to showcase the measures taken by urban self-government to improve the health of Chistopol’s residents and the sanitary conditions of the town. It is revealed that the country council self-governing bodies continued to play a significant role in healthcare, the town faced a shortage of doctors and medical institutions, and the budget allocation for this sphere was relatively small. The author concludes that despite the existing challenges, the development of medicine and sanitation in the town had progressed noticeably.
Keywords: Healthcare, sanitation, town, urban self-government, Chistopol, late XIX century.

DOI: 10.15350/26191490.2023.1.3    


A. M. Subbotina
The N. I. Ilminsky’s christian enlightenment and teacher training for schools in Vyatka province in the second half of the XIX and early XX centuries   Download

The article is dedicated to studying the influence of N. I. Ilminsky’s pedagogical system on the availability of teachers with knowledge of the native language for primary schools in the Vyatka province during the 1860s to 1910s. It examines how the ideas of the enlightener were reflected in the Rules on Measures for the Education of Non-Russians Settling in Russia and subsequent legislative acts. Special attention is paid to the study of the activities of the Kazan Central Christian Tatar School, the Kazan Teacher Seminary and the Karlygan Central Udmurt School. The contribution of graduates from these educational institutions, such as I. S. Mikheev and I. V. Yakovlev, is highlighted in the development of teaching methodology, the creation of educational materials and the translation of literature. The conclusion is drawn about the joint participation of the Orthodox Missionary Society, the Ministry of Public Education, the Country Council, benefactors in the development of primary and pedagogical national education. The published documents and materials of the Central State Archive of the Udmurt Republic allow us to say that, despite the significant work done, the Country council primary public schools and missionary schools experienced a shortage of teachers who knew the students’ native language.
Keywords: the Kazan Christian Tatar School, the Kazan Teacher Seminary, the Karlygan Central Udmurt School, Country Council primary public schools, missionary schools.  

DOI: 10.15350/26191490.2023.1.4       


L. R. Gabdrafikova
The professional development of Tatar artist Baki Urmanche in the 1910s–1920s   Download

This article analyzes the process of professional development of Tatar artist Baki Urmanche (1897–1990) in the 1910s–1920s. He went from being a student at a madrasa to becoming the head of the Kazan Аrt School. During this period, Tatar society was grappling with Muslim stereotypes regarding the fine arts. After the revolution of 1917 there was an integration of artistic culture into the system of propagating Soviet values. Baki Urmanche was an active participant in the revolutionary events in the Volga-Ural region. The article focuses on the period of the artist’s life in Glazov, Vyatka Governorate, as well as his work at the Kazan Art School. The research includes materials of personal origin – the memoirs of Baki Urmanche and his friends, which allowed for a detailed reconstruction of the artist’s biography during the revolutionary period.
Keywords: revolution of 1917, Muslim Tatars, Tatar fine arts, the Kazan Art School, TASSR.

DOI: 10.15350/26191490.2023.1.5     


R. S. Bakaev
Some aspects of the Muslim Ummah’s development in the Republic of Bashkortostan in the period from 1990 to 2010   Download

The article examines the stages of development of the Muslim Ummah’s regional religious identity. Changes are considered from the early 1990s to the late 2010s. This period is characterized by two stages. The first stage witnesses a sharp increase in interest in religion, followed by routinization. The second stage sees the emergence of competing religious groups. The two most active groups among them in the legal public space are the “Salafis” and the “Hakkanis”. Both groups have used nationally oriented rhetoric within their discourse. The main drawback of these groups has been the foreign nature of the genesis of their ideological postulates. By the end of the 2010s, they reduce their public activity, forming a core of support from their existing followers and attempt to incorporate themselves into official structures. In the entire period under consideration, they serve as a stabilizing element, thanks to which the Muslim Ummah of the region has been spared serious crises and develops within the framework of all-Russian identity.
Keywords: identity, religiosity, religious groups, stages, routinization, competition.

DOI: 10.15350/26191490.2023.1.6            


R. R. Gallyamov, S. M. Emelin
Religious identity of the residents of the poly-ethnic russian region at the present stage: main stages of development (by the materials of the Republic of Bashkortostan)   Download

In this work, the author analyzes the main stages of the development of religiosity in one of the most multiethnic Russian regions – the Republic of Bashkortostan in the period of modern history are analyzed. The article examines the ethnic and confessional component of the religiosity of the peoples living in the republic in a comparative sense. The main conclusions are drawn on the results of repeated and synchronous analysis of state statistics materials, as well as the results of several large–scale and expert surveys conducted under the guidance and with the direct participation of the authors. The features and directions of religious identity are considered from the point of view of the formation of the modern “confessional renaissance” and the identification foundations of interfaith relations.
Keywords: Religious identity, trends and stages of development, Republic of Bashkortostan

DOI: 10.15350/26191490.2023.1.7   


D. A. Efimov
Some aspects of regular members’ research methodology of Orthodox religious organizations in Bashkortostan   Download

In this article the author examines various aspects of the regular members’ research of Orthodox communities operating in the territory of the Republic of Bashkortostan. The methodologies of V. F. Chesnokova and Yu. Yu. Sinelina are presented, according to which the criteria for a regular member of a religious community (or a “churchgoing” Orthodox believer) include characteristics such as the frequency of attending church, confession and communion, the systematic reading of the Gospel, prayer, and fasting observance. There is an example of a mathematical calculation of the regular members’ number of Orthodox religious organizations in Ufa, based on the results of studies on the religiosity of the Russian population, conducted by the Institute of Social and Political Studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The author notes that despite the existence of developed methodologies for determining regular members of Orthodox parishes in the scientific literature, research in this field continues, and the question of the objectivity of empirical materials remains relevant.
Keywords: Orthodoxy, regular members of Orthodox communities, religious organizations, research methodology, Republic of Bashkortostan, Russian Federation.

DOI: 10.15350/26191490.2023.1.8                  


I. K. Kudryavtseva
Armenians in Udmurtia: practices of ethnic identity preservation in a multinational region    Download

Based on the analysis of field materials collected by the author in 2016 and 2023, the article examines the main directions of work to preserve the national identity of Armenians. The family plays a crucial role in the reproduction of ethnicity, serving as the primary transmitter of the native language, social experience and norms of behavior. The Sunday school also plays a significant role, ensuring the educational process from pre-literacy stages to the acquisition of Armenian language norms and rules. The organization of national holidays, annual concerts by creative professional groups from Armenia, participation in competitions contribute to the identification and awareness of their ethnicity, fostering a sense of unity and cohesion. Immigration to the Russian Federation offers many Armenians opportunities for professional realization and development of creative potential. At the same time, the diaspora manages to preserve their native language as a means of communication, value attitudes and moral foundations. In a multinational region like the Udmurt Republic, researching the historical peculiarities of diasporal groups formed mainly by immigrants from the former USSR, their strategies for survival, development, and self-preservation in a predominantly non-native language environment becomes particularly relevant.
Keywords: Armenian diaspora, ethnicity, ethnic identity, adaptation, Sunday school, migrants.

DOI: 10.15350/26191490.2023.1.9           


A. N. Klyashev
Attitude of Ukrainian protestants towards confessional policy in the Ural region   Download

The article examines the evaluative judgments of Ukrainians – members of the largest ethnic group of Protestant religious organizations in the Southern, Central and Polar Ural regions, which have a “foreign” origin, regarding certain aspects of the implementation of confessional policy carried out by the state authorities of the Russian Federation. The research is based on field materials which were conducted by the author in 2013–2015 in the Ural region. The results of the research showed that more than half of the Ukrainian Protestants in the Urals, as well as respondents from the general sample, consider the confessional policy of the authorities of the Russian Federation towards Protestant formations either tolerable or have difficulty answering this question. The overwhelming majority of Ukrainian Protestants, similar to believers from the general array of respondents, identified Orthodoxy as the religion that enjoys the greatest preferences.
Keywords: Protestantism, Ukrainian Protestants, Urals, state-confessional policy, religious organization, Republic of Bashkortostan, Russian Federation.

DOI: 10.15350/26191490.2023.1.10   


R. N. Kasimov
Uraza-Bayram holiday in the Muslim community of the city of Izhevsk   Download

The article is devoted to the description of the celebration of Eid al-Fitr (Uraza-bayram) in 2022 (a celebration on the occasion of the end of religious fasting). This is one of the main Muslim holidays. The main event takes place around the mosques of the city of Izhevsk and in the family circle. In the course of work on the material of the article, on the one hand, it is possible to confirm Muslim traditions in holding a holiday among the Tatars of Udmurtia. On the other hand, there are some features that allow us to consider this holiday as an important element in the manifestations of community in Muslim culture. And if in the first case God-fearing and the metaphysical sense of diligence of a member of the Muslim Ummah is important for a person, then in the second case, we are talking about earthly needs in communication with relatives and coreligionists. The novelty of the research lies in the detailed fixation of the elements of the holiday observed in 2022 in the city of Izhevsk, which confirm the commitment of the Tatars of Udmurtia to the traditions of Islam.
Keywords: Muslim holidays, Islam in Russia, Tatar ethnography, Tatars in Udmurtia, Eid al-Fitr, the Muslim community of Izhevsk, urban Tatars.

DOI: 10.15350/26191490.2023.1.11           


D. G. Kasimova, A. F. Mityukova
Spring calendar rites of the Middle Chepetsk Tatars in the second half of the XX – beginning of the XXI century   Download

The article presents a systematized set of traditional spring calendar rites and festivals of the Middle Chepetsk Tatars of the Zasekovo rural settlement of the Yukamensk district of the Udmurt Republic from the second half of the XX to the early XXI century. These rituals mark the change of periods of the year and highlight the most significant moments of the life of local Tatars, associated with collective labor, leisure and communication. The research describes in detail the rituals and festivals conducted before the sowing season – the ritual of washing the face with spring water, Easter, the crow’s porridge and Sabantui. It also covers rituals related to the day of sowing – collective prayers, “sowing eggs on a plowed field”, assistance in organizing and conducting the most labor-intensive agricultural work. The authors focus on the dynamics of the elements of the spring calendar rituals and the influence on the spring rituals of the close proximity of local Tatars to other peoples of the Udmurt Republic.
Keywords: spring calendar rituals, Middle Chepetsk Tatars, face washing ritual, Easter, crow’s porridge, Sabantui, collective prayers, assistance.

DOI: 10.15350/26191490.2023.1.12                


S. D. Smirnova
Days (Decades) of Udmurt culture and art: their role in the process of interethnic interaction   Download

The article examines the influence of the Decades (days) of Udmurt culture and art on the preservation and development of culture, the Udmurt language and traditions, as well as the promotion of creative activities in Udmurtia. The paper presents the Days of Udmurt culture and art in different periods (1937–2022) which are based on the analysis of non-fiction literature, media materials and reports of state bodies. There are typical and distinctive features of the organization and implementation of the events. Materials of the modern period have been introduced into scholarly discourse. The author highlights the role of cultural exchanges, intergovernmental and interdepartmental agreements on trade, economic, scientific, technical, social and cultural cooperation in creating conditions for intercultural dialogue, strengthening creative and friendly connections between the regions of the Russian Federation and with foreign countries.
Keywords: Udmurt Republic, decade, culture and art days, kindred peoples, creative connections, cultural exchanges.

DOI: 10.15350/26191490.2023.1.13            


T. V. Pantyukhina
On the question of Latinization of the Udmurt language: from the documents of the Scientific Archive of the Udmurt Institute of History, Language and Literature of the UdmFRC UB RAS  Download

Among the preserved documentary heritage in the Scientific Archive of the Udmurt Institute of History, Language and Literature of the Udmurt Scientific Center of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, exceptional importance is given to the archival case Materials on the development and transition to the new Udmurt alphabet (theses, resolutions, protocols, plans, correspondence) ([1929] – January 5, 1934). It includes documents on the Latinization of the Udmurt language: the regulations of the All-Udmurt Committee of the New Alphabet (AUCNA), protocols of committee meetings, the Kazan Udmurt literary coterie, the Ugro-Finnish Commission under the All-Union Central Committee of the New Alphabet (AUCC NA), work plans, correspondence on the transition to the new alphabet, etc. Special attention is given to eight projects for the transformation of the Udmurt script, which were sent to the Regional Department of Education (RDE) in late 1930. Alphabet projects are valuable not only because they reflect one of the stages in the development of the Udmurt language, but also because the originals and handwritten works by prominent representatives of Finno-Ugric and Udmurt linguistic science: D. V. Bubrikh, I. V. Yakovlev, S. P. Zhuikov, D. I. Korepanov (Kedra Mitrei), K. M. Baushev and others.
Keywords: Nauchnyi arkhiv UIIYAL UdMFITS URO RAN, archival case, linguistics, the Udmurt language, Latinization of writing, originals.

DOI: 10.15350/26191490.2023.1.14        


А. A. Shibanov
Some morphological features of adverbs in the Udmurt language   Download

The article notes previously undescribed morphological features of the Udmurt dialects. Adverbs are distinguished into an independent part of speech on the basis of three principles: 1) the lexical meaning of the word, which implies the lexical independence of adverbs as words with a contextual meaning that indicates time, place, reason, purpose or mode of action; 2) the morphological integrity of adverbs, which consists of: a) the deprivation of forms of inflection; b) the existence of a personal system of word formation; c) correlativity of adverbs with other parts of speech; 3) the syntactic role of the circumstance in the sentence. These principles of adverbs are very closely interconnected, but the main thing is that in the formation of an adverb as a part of speech, each of these signs plays a separate role: with the generality of the semantic criterion, the meaning of the sign of action in different grammatical conditions manifests itself in different ways. Nevertheless, the analysis of the dialects of the modern Udmurt language showed that, in addition to the use of case formants, some Udmurt dialects can take the form of expressing relations of ownership and the form of an individual and collective owner, which, at first glance, is not typical for this grammatical category.
Keywords: morphology, parts of speech, adverb, immutability, case, adverbialization.

DOI: 10.15350/26191490.2023.1.15            


M. A. Klyucheva
Words of Mari origin in the Zhgon language (on the materials of V. A. Aktsorin)   Download

This article introduces a new archival material into scientific circulation – the vocabulary of the Zhgon language collected by V. A. Aktsorin in 1975 in the villages of Fatyanovo, Velikoye Selo and Samylovo, Manturovo district, Kostroma region (about 120 lexical units). It is presented in the form of a Zhgon-Russian dictionary in two parts. The first part contains words of Mari origin (44 stems; this part of the dictionary is structured thematically), while the second part includes other material (about 50 stems in alphabetical order). The lexical material of V. A. Aktsorin is also compared with the recordings from collection of Northern Russian Toponymic Expedition of the Ural State University in the Neya and Manturovo districts of the Kostroma region (1977), as well as with the materials of the Zhgon slang collected by V. D. Bondaletov in the Vetluga district of the Gorky region, Makaryevo and Manturovo districts of the Kostroma region and Yuryevo district, Ivanovo region (1957–1968). The methods of lexicological and etymological analysis confirm the Mari origin of 32 stems, previously established by I. A. Popov, S. M. Strelnikov, V. D. Bondaletov. Additionally, about 12 potentially Mari stems in the Zhgon language (on the material of V. A. Aktsorin) are revealed for the first time.
Keywords: the Zhgon language, the Mari language, the Meryan language, Finno-Ugric languages, language substrate, borrowings, Kostroma region.

DOI: 10.15350/26191490.2023.1.16     


А. A. Arzamazov
Tatar-Arabic paths in science and life: in celebration of the 50th anniversary of Doctor of Philology Fler Foatovich Gilemshin  Download

DOI: 10.15350/26191490.2023.1.17                   


N. V. Kultasheva
Review of scientific and information publications from the UIHLL UdmFITs UB RAS:  Download

Hospitable Udmurtia (2015) and The Diversity of World Religious Cultures in Russia and Udmurtia (2022)

DOI: 10.15350/26191490.2023.1.18