Historical and Cultural Heritage № 1(12) 2022
A. G. Salikhov, S. A. Iskandarova
FROM THE HISTORY OF TEACHING THE PERSIAN LANGUAGE IN THE BASHKIR MADRASAH AND PERSIAN GRAMMAR BY MUKHAMMETSALIM UMETBAYEV Download
Fund of Manuscripts named after G. B. Khusainov of the Institute of History, Language and Literature of the Ufa Federal Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences is one of the largest repositories of manuscripts in Turkic, Arabic and Persian. It contains more than 270 Persian manuscripts, most of which were created by local scribes. They show the active use of the Persian language as one of the written languages in the Ural-Volga region and their important place in the culture of the Bashkir people. The purpose of this article is to study the history of the use of the Persian language among the Bashkirs and to study the manuscript of the Persian Grammar (1904) in the Turkic language by the prominent Bashkir educator Mukhammetsalim Umetbaev. The Persian language was studied in the XVIII – early ХХ century in the Bashkir madrasah. As text editions they used the works of famous Persian poets and writers. There are the widespread works on various fields of science and literature in the Ural-Volga region. However, there were no special educational aids or works on Farsi grammar. M. Umetbaev’s book on the grammar of the Persian language, prepared for publication, was the first text edition for local Muslim educational foundations, written by a native of Bashkortostan. In creating the educational aid, M. Umetbaev was assisted with the knowledge he gained while studying at the Orenburg Neplyuevsky Cadet Corps.
Keywords: Persian manuscripts, oriental languages, written sources, Mukhammetsalim Umetbayev, archeography, arabic monuments.
L. R. Gabdrafikova
IZHEVSK IN THE FATE OF THE FIRST TATAR ACTRESS SAKHIPZHAMAL GIZZATULLINA-VOLZHSKAYA Download
The article is devoted to the biography of the first Tatar actress Sakhipzhamal Gizzatullina-Volzhskaya (1892–1974). She was one of the founders of the Tatar Theater and played in the first Tatar professional troupes. Her activity in the Tatar Theater had a great influence on the emancipation of Muslim women. Since 1918 S. Gizzatullina-Volzhskaya lived in Izhevsk, took part in the organization of cultural and educational work among the people. The study includes materials of personal origin, as well as documents from the State Archives of Tatarstan, the National Museum of Tatarstan. The citations in the text are translated into Russian by the author of the article. For the first time, an attempt is being made to comprehensively reconstruct the biography of the actress during the Civil War and in later years.
Keywords: Tatar Theater, Civil War, history of Izhevsk, everyday life history, Sakhipzhamal Gizzatullina-Volzhskaya.
T. I. Ostanina
TWO MONUMENTS OF ANANYINO CULTURE IN THE MIDDLLE KAMA REGION Download
The article is devoted to the publication of materials about two monuments of the Ananyino culture (Mazuninskoye and Mezhnovskoye II settlements) located in the Sarapulskiy district of the Udmurt Republic. An archaeological expedition of the Udmurt Republican Museum of Local Lore conducted excavations on these monuments in 1976. Almost the entire territory of the Mazuninskoye settlement was opened and a small excavation was laid on the Mezhnovskoye II settlement. The author gives a description of the structures found on the monuments (pole and utility pits). The materials of the excavations Mazuninskoye settlement made it possible to determine its functional purpose (a guard fortress: an observation post for the movement of the enemy on the right bank of the Kama River). The settlement was used by the population of the Ananyino culture for a relatively short period of time (IV century BC). The settlement ceased to exist as a result of a fire. Possibly, the same function was performed by the Mezhnovskoye II settlement. Things and ceramic material on the monuments is insignificant. The technique of pottery making, ornamental patterns (rows of rope impressions, pit prints) allow us to attribute both settlements to the Ananyino culture.
Keywords: Udmurtia, the Kama River, monuments of archaeology, Mazuninskoye settlement, Mezhnovskoye II settlement, the Ananyino culture.
A. G. Kolonskikh
TO THE QUESTION OF THE BAKHMUTINO CULTURE HILLFORTS PRESERVATION Download
The publication is devoted to the study of the Bakhmutino hillforts preservation, as well as to the identification the main factors of their destruction. The source base for the study is the Ufa-Belaya interfluve settlements, in the cultural layer of which archaeological material was found in the form of Bakhmutino type ceramics. The nature of the negative impact on the cultural layer of settlement objects is determined. The data obtained are compared with the available information on the safety of unfortified settlements – hillforts. According to the results of the research, an assessment of the current state is given, which confirms the most frequent damage to settlements in the course of human economic activity and related to earthworks, mining (quarrying) and agriculture. The data obtained, along with the weak thickness of the cultural layer characteristic of the Bakhmutino culture settlements, explain of the researchers’ lack of interest in stationary archaeological work in the past few decades, due to their low information content.
Keywords: settlements, hillforts, Bakhmutino culture, preservation, cultural layer.
T. M. Sabirova
ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESEARCH OF THE VARNINSKY BURIAL GROUND: PRELIMINARY RESULTS OF EXCAVATIONS IN 2021 Download
Varninsky burial ground (V – the first half of the X century) is the largest of all known explored necropolises of the Polomskaya archaeological culture in the basin of the river Cheptsa. The relevance of its study is determined by the unique chronology of the site, which makes it possible to clarify the beginning of the formation of the Polomskaya culture and its transition to the Chepetskaya archaeological culture. In 2021, after a 15-year break, excavations of the burial
ground were resumed. The stripped area, excluding digs, was 25 square meters. 7 burials in 6 burial pits were studied on it. As a result of the excavations, decorations of a women’s costume, household items and weapons were found. The obtained material is tentatively dated to the VIII–IX centuries. It characterizes the late Mydlanshan stage of the Polomskaya archaeological culture. Based on observations of the stratigraphy of the layers, a hypothesis was formulated about a two-stage filling of this part of the burial ground. The lower level is formed by areas with deep burials, which, after a considerable period of time, were refilled with smaller graves, let into the sintered clay layers.
Keywords: Polomskaya archeological culture, archaeological microdistrict, excavations, Cheptsa river, Varninsky burial ground.
A. I. Tuzbekov
“TREASURE HUNTERS” IN BASHKIRIA: THE RESULTS OF AN ANALYSIS OF INTERNET COMMUNITIES IN 2021 Download
These days the measures taken to combat the illegal search for artifacts in the Russian Federation have no adequate effect. Even if the facts of the cultural layer of monuments’ destruction are recorded, most of the them do not result in punishment due to the lack of evidence. Therefore, it is necessary to develop new, interdisciplinary methods of countering the illegal search for “treasures”. The research of online communities of “treasure hunters” is one of the effective tools for studying their activities at the territory of the Russian Federation. This paper presents the results of the study of the Internet communities of looters in the Republic of Bashkortostan in 2021. Comparing the data obtained in 2020 and 2021, it has been found that the number of people interested in looting of archeological sites continues to increase in the Republic of Bashkortostan, but the fundamental difference in 2021 is in the fact that there has been a sharp decline in subscriber activity and content involvement. This phenomenon is associated with both the greater popularity of messengers and the growth of subscriber unity. Using convenient platforms for communication, the community of “treasure hunters” has moved to a higher level of interaction, owing to which they can exchange their experience and coordinate their actions more quickly.
Keywords: looters, treasure hunters, legislation, Internet communities, Republic of Bashkortostan.
S. K. Svechnikov
MARI-UDMURT ETHNIC CONTACTS IN THE MEDIEVAL PERIOD Download
The issue of Mari-Udmurt ethnic contacts in the Middle Ages has not previously become a separate subject of research. The purpose of the article – identify and analyze the features and dynamics of the Mari-Udmurt ethnic contacts in the medieval period. The article is written on the basis of folklore materials, the results of archaeological and linguistic research. The research methods: concrete historical, comparative historical, retrospective. Based on historical legends, the results of archaeological research, toponymic data, the development of Mari-Udmurt contacts during the Middle Ages (VI–XVI centuries) is traced. According to numerous legends, the battles between the ancestors of the Mari and the Udmurts were bright, but episodic and not large-scale events, representing several short-term conflicts. The decisive factors were multilateral contacts of a peaceful character (economic, social, cultural, matrimonial), which intensified with the development of the historical process.
Keywords: mari, por, Udmurts, odo, legends, ethnic contacts.
I. Yu. Trushkova
THE ATTITUDE TO RELIGION AMONG THE WESTERN PERMIAN KOMI IN THE VYATKA PROVINCE DURING THE “CULTURAL BREAK” OF THE 1920s Download
Practically in all periods of the existence of the Russian state, the experience of managing national processes in the regions is relevant for nation-building and understanding ethnic processes. It looks especially vivid during the times of “cultural breaks”, including the 1920s, when the internal cultural policy of the state was radically changing. This experience is essential for effective national governance nowadays. The course of the research contains an analysis of unique texts on the state and “restructuring” of culture “on the ground” after 1917, namely, the collection of data in the historical, household and ethnographic expeditions, the discovery of unique materials from expeditions of the 1920s, the use of information from periodicals, the work with museum collections. As a result of the research, there is the reconstruction of the picture of the state not only economy, but also social life, spirituality among the “nationals”, including religion among the Orlov Komi in the Vyatka region in the ethnic history of the region. The directions of the authorities’ actions in the fight against religion, as one of the main competitors of the new government for the minds, the reduction of the sphere of religious life, the role of youth in the anti-religious struggle are noted. The authors correct the provision on the “triumphal procession” of new phenomena in the life of the ethnic community and show the role of public institutions in the approval of innovations, the contribution of scholars and students to the preservation of the Orlov Komi people’s cultural heritage.
Keywords: national politics, dual faith, mimicry, latent existence of religion, Soviet rituals.
E. V. Baikova, I. L. Pozdeev, N. E. Prokopyeva
ELEMENTS OF WOMEN’S TRADITIONAL CLOTHES OF THE ZAVYAT UDMURTS AS A REFLECTION OF THE CULTURAL INDIVIDUALITY OF A LOCAL GROUP Download
Based on field ethnographic materials, the article examines the elements of traditional women’s clothing of the Udmurts living in the territory of the Kukmorsky district of the Republic of Tatarstan. The research contains a detailed description of traditional head coverings, a maiden headdress takya, a women’s shirt udmurt dress, which were used as a concert, festive, ritual costume at the present time. The paper examines the features of clothing in detail: the materials that are used, manufacturing techniques, coloring, composition, ornament, as well as its inclusion in the spiritual and ritual sphere of life of the Zavyat Udmurts. There are three main types of women’s shirt udmurt dress of different periods of existence; they give an idea of the change in women’s costume in a historical context. The authors note that knowledge about the traditional women’s costume, its configuration, using in ritual practice is quite well preserved among the people, especially among middle-aged respondents. The Udmurt folk costume is one of the key elements of ethnic culture, performing an ethno-integrating function, along with national dishes, native language, song folklore, etc.
Keywords: Kukmor Udmurts, traditional clothing, headdresses, takya, syulyk, dress, embroidery, weaving.
R. N. Kasimov
KURBAN-BAYRAM AS AN ELEMENT OF TRADITIONAL FAMILY RITES IN TATAR-MUSLIM CULTURE Download
The article tells about the key day of the Kurban-bayram (sacrificial ritual among the Muslims) among the Chepetsky Tatars in the village of Kestym of the Balezinsky district of the Udmurt Republic. Historically, it is this village is the center of the Chepetsk Tatars’ spiritual culture. The main events of the holiday were around the center of the village, where two mosques are located, as well as on the outskirts of the village, where the cemetery is located. In the course of the research, in the one hand, we succeeded in confirming the strict adherence to the Muslim tradition in holding the holiday among the Chepetsk Tatars. On the other hand, some features have been revealed that allow us to consider this holiday as an important element of traditional family ritual. And if in the first case mystical God-fearing and a metaphysical sense of diligence on the way to the “gardens of the righteous” are important for a person, then in the second case we are talking about earthly needs in communication with relatives and close acquaintances. The novelty of the study lies in the detailed fixation of the holiday’s elements observed in 2021, which confirm the adherence of the Tatars to religious and folk traditions.
Keywords: religious Muslim holidays, ethnography of the Chepetsk Tatars, folk forms of religion, Tatars in Udmurtia, Islam in Russia.
L. M. Ivshin
THE NAMES OF MONTHS IN WRITTEN MONUMENTS OF THE UDMURT LANGUAGE OF THE XVIII CENTURY Download
The names of the traditional Udmurt months in the XVIII century were reflected only in one written monument – the handwritten Udmurt-Russian dictionary of Z. Krotov (1785). It contains twelve names for the designation of eleven months: ‘September’ remained without a nomination and for ‘January’ the author gives two names. References to the calendar months of the Udmurts are very fragmentary and sketchy: many scientists and researchers limit themselves only to listing them or give minimal information concerning the issue of their origin. As in most other languages, there are complex names of the months in the Udmurt language; the defining word tolez has two meanings – ‘moon’ and ‘month’, which goes back to the pre-Permian layer of the vocabulary. Analysis of the traditional months’ names of the Udmurts, noted in the lexicographical work of Z. Krotov, shows that the motivational signs of their nomination are weather conditions, calendar holidays and customs, as well as the land-based activities of the people.
Keywords: the Udmurt language, written monument, handwritten dictionary, time calculation, names of months, traditional calendar.
A. E. Konshin
CREATIVE WORK OF R. M. BATALOVA: SOCIO-POLITICAL SIGNIFICANCE Download
The article examines the activity of a prominent Soviet researcher, Doctor of Philology Raisa Mikhailovna Batalova from the point of view of socio-political significance. Until now, she has not been the object of special research. The need to study her oeuvre is caused by the fact that it is necessary to outline the prospects for further study of the Komi-Permian language. The authors found out that due to the socio-political changes, there are irreversible processes in the qualitative composition of the language and a rapid reduction in the number of its native speakers. In some works, R. M. Batalova proved that the Komi-Permian language is closely related to the Komi-Zyryan language, but it is independent language within the Uralic family of Finno-Ugric peoples. She introduced and scientifically substantiated the theory of Komi-Permian dialects’ classification. She also proved that the language of the Yazvin Permians in its main parameters is one of the four dialects of the Komi-Permian language. And finally, on the basis of the international project on the uniform description of the Uralic languages’ dialects, through a detailed phonetic, morphological and syntactic description of the Onkovsky dialect of the Komi-Permian language, R. M. Batalova entered the history of world philological science. She offered a single form of registration of the results of a comprehensive study of any language on the example of Komi-Permian. Her works on Komi-Permian and Finno-Ugric philology have taken a worthy place in the world philological science.
Keywords: R. M. Batalova, V. I. Lytkin, Institute of Linguistics of the RAS, dialectology, Onkovsky dialect, Usolsky dialect, dialects, international project, description of dialects.
N. V. Chikina
TRENDS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE KARELIAN LITERATURE AT THE TURN OF THE ХХ–ХХI CENTURIES THROUGH THE PRISM OF V. M. VANYUSHEV’S SCHOLARLY IDEAS Download
The article analyzes trends in the development of Karelian literature at the turn of the ХХ–ХХI centuries. The tasks were the following: to formulate the vectors and features of the literary process, to scrutinize and compare them with data for other Finno-Ugric literatures, and first of all with the scholarly ideas of a well-known Udmurt scientist V. M. Vanyushev. The object of the study is the works of Karelian writers. The subject is the trends in the literature at the turn of the ХХ–ХХI centuries. The historical literary and the comparative methods were used for the analysis. The scientific novelty consists in the comparative analysis of key trends in the development of Karelian literature with V. M. Vanyushev’s scholarly ideas. The main distinctive feature of Karelian literature development is that literary works are simultaneously written in the three dialectal varieties of the Karelian language rather than in the common standard language. There are the poetry’s prevalence over prose and the using of folklore heritage in the Karelian literature.
Keywords: literature, the Karelian language, poetry, prose, translations, folklorism, ethnographism, image, native land, V. M. Vanyshev, comparative literary criticism, comparative studies.
G. K. Lisovskaya
MYTHOPOESIS OF THE SYMBOLIST NOVEL THROUGH THE STRUCTURE OF LIFE BY K. F. ZHAKOV Download
The article analyzes the symbolist novel of the Komi writer K. F. Zhakov (1866–1926) Through the Structure of Life. Professor, scientist, encyclopedist, thinker – the creator of the original philosophical doctrine, man of letters – Kallistrat Falaleevich Zhakov was widely known in the cultural life of Russia at the beginning of the XX century. He was called “Zyryansky Faust” and “Zyryansky Lomonosov”. The writer’s artistic work is the books To the North in Search of Pam Bur-Mort (1905), From Life and Fantasy (1907), In the Coniferous Forests (1908), Under the Sound of the North Wind (1913), the novel Through the Structure of Life (1914), a poem Biarmia (1916) and other works brought unique colors to the Russian literature of the Silver Age. They reflect the originality of Komi-Zyryan’s worldview, which is enriched with the experience of world philosophy and artistic culture. This paper examines the influence of the symbolist aesthetics on the peculiarities of the poetics of the novel Through the Structure of Life – the largest work of K. F. Zhakov. There is the combination of autobiography and automythologism in the novel – a realistic, event-based basis and mytho-symbolic meaning of its artistic space.
Keywords: K. F. Zhakov, novel Through the Structure of Life, aesthetics of modernism, symbolist novel, myth, symbol.
N. A. Khubbitdinova
FOLKLORE TRADITIONS IN THE WORKS OF THE BASHKIR POET FAZYL TUIKIN: ARTISTIC PECULIARITIES Download
The article deals with the artistic and aesthetic use of folklore traditions in Bashkir literature in the 1920s–1930s. in the context of the struggle for the purity of the native language in literary works. Writers wrote down some folklore genres – songs, legends, traditions – published them, artistically reflected them in their works, used them for their own creative purposes. On the example of the Bashkir poet Fazyl Tuykin’s works we examined an artistic technique of using the theme of folk songs, the plot of the fairy tale How Yerense was looking for a bride for his son, motives of the archaic epos Ural-batyr. The last work is of particular interest. It suggests that the writer was familiar with the epos, with its main motives and characters. Despite the fact that such adherence to folklore traditions – plot, motives, images – sometimes look schematic and artificial, these works are valuable as an actual phenomenon of literary thought for their time.
Keywords: literature, writer, folklore traditions, images, plot, motive, fairy tale, epos, native language.
A. A. Arzamazov
CREATIVE WORK OF MARI VYACHESLAV KOMAROV: POETICIZATION OF INTERNAL BREAKS Download
The article deals with the artistic features of Vyacheslav Komarov’s works, who is one of the most representative modern Mari author in terms of national tradition. Poetic works from the bilingual poetry collection Generic path fell into the reading orbit. At the same time, special attention was paid to the problems of translation from Mari into Russian, numerous cases of distortion by the translator of the original text and reduction of the ethno-cultural component were found. Also we revealed the motive and figurative constants of V. Komarov’s poetry. It has been established that there are certain themes characteristic of Finno-Ugric literatures, symbolic rows, associative parallels in his poems. The study of the artistic phenomenon of V. Komarov allows us to analytically identify some important scenarios for the development of Mari (and more broadly, Finno-Ugric) literature at the beginning of the XXI century.
Keywords: Mari poetry, literary translation, figurative system, national tradition, semantics, ethno-cultural context, author.
N. V. Gorinova
TREE-PLANT IMAGES IN V. VANYUSHEV’S POETRY AND IN THE WORKS OF KOMI AUTHORS Download
The article is devoted to the study of V. Vanyushev’s poetic system. The paper analyzes images of the natural world in which the character and fate of a person are embodied. Also we revealed the features of these images in the context of Komi literature. V. Vanyushev, V. Chistalev, A. Popov, creating capacious allegories, continue to develop the traditions of literature and folklore in depicting the character of man in the image of the plant symbols. Magnificent trees in poems reveal the lifestyle of a person of epoch’s scale; deadwood and log become the characteristics of a person whose spirit was broken by the social and economic cataclysms of the XX–XXI centuries. The image of a human double tree is of particular interest in the works of V. Vanyushev, A. Luzhikov and A. Popov. In the poems of the Udmurt poet, this image expresses affection and rootedness in the native land. The twin tree in Komi literature, being not the central image of works, but only a catalyst for action, reveals negative traits in the character of a Komi person, his ability to go to extreme measures for the love of his interests.
Keуwords: Udmurt poetry, V. Vanyushev, Komi literature, nature theme, allegorical images.
T. L. Molotova
REVIEW: MARI OF UDMURTIA: Download
HISTORICAL AND ETHNOGRAPHIC ESSAYS / ED. AND COMP. E. V. POPOVA / UdmFRC UB RAS. IZHEVSK: PUBLISHING HOUSE «MONPARAZHEN», 2021. 244 P.